The 42-year-old performed with the backing of a choir, and then moved on to another facility across the street where a smaller selection of female inmates were treated to a show.
West was said to have used a secret tunnel to get to the site of his second concert on Friday, which were kept secret from the public and organised with the approval of prison officials.
Harris County Sheriff Ed Gonzalez said representatives of the music star got in touch about doing the performances, which were reminiscent of jailhouse concerts given by country singer Johnny Cash in California, Sky News report.
Cash performed twice at Folsom State Prison in January 1968 and the 17 total tracks from the shows were later released as part of a live album titled At Folsom Prison.
The album opened at number one on the US Billboard 200, giving West – who is one of the most successful and influential artists of the 21st century – his ninth consecutive album to debut atop the rankings.